Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) is a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma with characteristic histologic features and chromosomal alterations. Although typically indolent, a small subset of cases has been reported to exhibit aggressive clinical behavior. We retrospectively identified 33 patients with MTSCC, consisting of 10 cases of locally advanced/metastatic MTSCC (pT3 or N1 or M1) and 23 kidney-confined MTSCC (pT1/T2) without disease recurrence or progression. Utilizing a single-nucleotide polymorphism array and a targeted next-generation sequencing platform, we examined genome-wide molecular alterations in 24 cases, including 11 available samples from 8 patients with locally advanced/metastatic MTSCC. Ten patients with locally advanced/metastatic MTSCC were 8 females (80%) and 2 males (20%). At nephrectomy, 7 of these 10 cases (70%) were pT3 or pN1 while the remaining 3 (30%) were pT1/T2. Eight patients (80%) developed metastases and common sites included lymph node (4, 40%), bone (4, 40%), and retroperitoneum (3, 30%). Four patients died of disease (40%) during follow-up. Locally advanced/metastatic MTSCCs shared typical MTSCC genomic profiles with loss of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22, while some exhibited additional complex genomic alterations, most frequently a relative gain of 1q (7/8). Homozygous loss of CDKN2A/B was observed in 3 (38%) locally advanced/metastatic MTSCCs. Tumor necrosis, solid nested/sheet pattern, irregular trabecular/single-file infiltration in a desmoplastic stroma, lymphovascular space invasion, and increased mitotic activity were associated with locally advanced/metastatic MTSCCs (all p < 0.05). Our findings reveal that MTSCCs with aggressive clinical behavior have progressed through clonal evolution; CDKN2A/B deletion and additional complex genomic abnormalities may contribute to this process. Recognizing the morphologic presentation of high-grade MTSCC and evaluating adverse histologic features seen in these tumors can help establish a definitive diagnosis and stratify patients for treatment and prognostication.