Sporadic reports of t(3;12)(q26.2;p13) indicate that this abnormality is associated with myeloid neoplasms, myelodysplasia, and a poor prognosis. To better characterize neoplasms with this abnormality, we assessed 20 patients utilizing clinicopathological data, cytogenetic, and targeted next-generation sequencing analysis. We also performed literature review of 58 prior reported cases. Patients included ten men and ten women with median age 55.8 years (range, 27.8-78.8). Diagnoses included 11 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 5 de novo and 6 secondary), 5 myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, 3 de novo excess blasts-2 and 2 therapy-related), 2 chronic myeloid leukemia BCR-ABL1-positive blast phase (1 de novo and 1 secondary), 1 primary myelofibrosis (secondary), and 1 mixed-phenotype acute leukemia T/myeloid (MPAL, secondary). Morphologic dysplasia was identified in all AML cases (5/5), MDS cases (4/4), therapy-related cases (3/3), half of myeloproliferative neoplasm cases (1/2), and one MPAL case assessed. The t(3;12) was detected de novo and in subsequent workups in 9 and 11 patients, respectively. Seven patients had t(3;12) only and eight patients had additional chromosome 7 abnormalities. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization detected MECOM (n = 11) and ETV6 (n = 7) rearrangements in all cases assessed. FLT3 internal tandem duplication was identified in five (25%) patients. We identified 13 genetic abnormalities in the de novo group (n = 9), and 25 in the secondary disease group (n = 11). All patients received chemotherapy, with seven allogeneic and two autologous stem cell transplantations. At last follow-up, 14 (70%) patients died with median survival of 6.3 months (range, 0.1-17.3) after detection of t(3;12). In summary, t(3;12)(q26.2;p13) is a rare cytogenetic abnormality in myeloid neoplasms. Myelodysplasia, chromosome 7 abnormalities, and high blast counts are common, and the prognosis is poor. Given the close relationship between the presence of this cytogenetic abnormality and the MDS-related changes, we recommend adding t(3;12)(q26.2;p13) to the list of AML with myelodysplasia-related changes defining abnormalities of the World Health Organization 2017 classification of myeloid neoplasms.