Pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation is a descriptive term that designates a group of clinically indolent genitourinary lesions that most commonly arise in the urinary bladder. Given that pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation may show morphologic overlap with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, the relationship, if any, between the two entities has been unclear. Moreover, pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations are known to be positive for ALK immunohistochemistry in a subset of cases, although an inconsistent association with ALK rearrangement (ranging from 0 to 60%) has been reported. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of ALK rearrangement and to identify fusion partners using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and targeted RNA sequencing studies in a contemporary series of 30 pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations of the urinary bladder, as well as to investigate ROS1 status by immunohistochemistry. ALK immunohistochemistry was positive in 70% (21/30) of pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations; ROS1 immunohistochemistry was consistently negative (0/28). ALK rearrangements were detected by FISH in 86% (18/21) of cases, correlating with ALK immunohistochemical positivity in all but 3 cases. Of eight cases confirmed to be ALK rearranged by FISH, targeted RNA-sequencing detected FN1-ALK fusions in seven (88%) cases, which involved exons 20-26 of FN1 (5') and exon 18-19 of ALK (3'). In conclusion, ALK rearrangements are frequent in pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferations, typically involving exon 19, and FN1 appears to be a consistent fusion partner. Given the significant clinicopathologic differences between inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation, our findings provide further support for classification of pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation as a distinct clinicopathologic entity, and propose the alternate terminology "pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic neoplasm of the genitourinary tract."