国际生物学编辑委员会对医学科研论文的定义为：必须是首次公布的应提供足够的资料，使同行们能够进行：①评价所观察到的结果；②评价其推理过程；③重复实验。分为以下两种：①临床研究(clinical study)；②基础研究或实验研究（experimental study)
（4）材料和方法（materials and methods）
1．简明扼要（short and concise）
Study(analysis/observation/evaluation/assessment) of (on) … (by) using 方法/with工具）
Effort of A on B
Protective effect of omeprazole on endothelin-induced gastric mucosal injury
Correlation (relation/relationship) between A and B
Correlation of A with B and C
Use of …in the treatment of …(病）in …（生物）
Use of omeprazole in the treatment of gastric ulcer in the elderly
5．A是B A as B
标准式：WANG aobang，HUANG aobang，GUO Xiao’an
800 Xiang Yin Road, Shanghai 200433, P.R.China
A project funded by the National “863” Program
（1）To evaluate the effects on 24-hour intragastric pH levels of infusions with omeprazole and H2 receptor antagonists in bleeding duodenal ulcer patients.
（2）The role of omeprazole in triple therapy and the impact of Helicobacter pylori resistance on treatment outcome are not established. This study investigated the role of omeprazole and influence of primary H. pylori resistance on eradication and development of secondary resistance.
举例：To determine if use of omeprazole protects against the gastric mucosal injury
2．The purpose/aim/objective/goal(of present study is)was to
举例：The aim of this study was to determine the protective function of omeprazole on gastric mucosal injury
3．The present study is /was designed/devised/intended to
举例：The present study was designed to establish whether there might be a genetic predisposition to an altered pattern of anti-inflammatory cytokine produced in patients with irritable bowel syndrome
4．This study was performed/conducted/carried out/undertaken to
举例：An experimental study was conducted using a canine mode to elucidate …
5．We aimed/sought to/attempted to
举例：We sought to assess whether there is an increased risk of tuberculosis among individuals who work in certain industries occupations.
1．研究：study, investigate, examine, observe, explore
举例：Our objective in this report is to examine the clinical feature, pathology and treatment for patients with pancreatic cancer.
举例：To evaluate sonography as a tool for initial diagnosis in emergency room patients with abdominal trauma.
3．确定：determine, decide, confirm, support, define, characterize
4．证实：prove, demonstrate, document, test, support, testify, verify
5．阐明、搞清：explain, elucidate, clarify, illustrate, delineate, find out, contribute to the knowledge of
6．介绍：describe, present, report
7．建立：establish, develop, set out
8．寻找：search for, look for, seek, find
9．识别、区分：identify, differentiate, discriminate
13．相关：correlate A with B
1．纳入研究：were entered into/enrolled in/selected (randomly)
举例：A total of 169 patients were included in the study, 83 of whom received……
2．排除或退出研究：were excluded from participation，withdrew from the study due to/because to
举例：……Patients with significant aortic valvular diseases were excluded.
1．……were divided into/classified/grouped into
2．……were divided randomly/randomized into
3．…… were divided equally into
举例：Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1…… Patients (n = 539) with a history of duodenal ulcer and a positive H. pylori screening test result were randomized into 4 groups. OAC group received 20 mg omeprazole, ……
举例：A 50-year-old patient. Patients (age 26±3 years).
举例：Patients range in age from …to…, with a mean of (50 years).
举例：Patients more than 50 years. Patients under/less than 50 years.
twelve patients (7 male and 5 female )
The male-to-female ratio was 1:4
Body weight was measured weekly, and liver biopsy was obtained at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. ……
be diagnosed as having …
be diagnosed as …by …/with …®be suspected as …
be treated with…(alone or in combination with …)
be treated on outpatient/inpatient basis
（1）Patients (n = 539) with a history of duodenal ulcer and a positive H. pylori screening test result were randomized into 4groups. OAC group received 20 mg omeprazole,…
（2）50 patients with active bleeding duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to receive one of the four treatment regimens. …
1．结果表明：The results showed / demonstrated / revealed / documented / indicated/suggested…that…®It was found that…
举例：The results showed that high thigh cuff Doppler technique was 79 percent sensitive, 56 percent specific and 63 percent accurate.
2．与…有关：A was related / correlated /associated with B. There was a relationship /correlation between A and B. There was a relation of A with B and C
举例：Insulin sensitivity index was negatively with blood velocity (r=0.530, P<0.05), body mass index (r=o.563, P<0.01) and baseline insulinemia (r=0.489, P<0.05)< span="">
（1）表示数值增加的动词：increase, rise, elevate
（2）表示数值增加的名词：increase, increment, elevation
（3）表示数值减少的动词：decrease, reduce, fall, drop, decline, lower
（4）表示数值减少的名词：decrease, decrement, reduction, fall, drop, decline, lowering
（5）从…增加到…，平均增加…：increase from …to …, with a mean/average (increase) of …
（6）从…增加到…，总的增加…：increase from …to …, with an overall increase of …
（7）增加了10％：increase by (10%)
（1）增加或减少3倍：increase by 3 fold (times). a 3-fold increase
（2）A 是 B的3倍：A is 3 fold (times) as…as B. A is 3 fold (times) B
（2）很明显不同（very/highly significant difference）
（3）区别不明显（ insignificant difference）
（4）无区别（ nonsignificant difference/no difference）
（1）There was/is significant difference in…between A and B
（2）The difference in …between A and B was/is significant
（3）A was/is significant difference from B in …
（4）No significant difference was found / observed / noted in …between A and B
①There were no significant difference between treatment groups in symptoms and lung function (P>0.05).
②Significant difference were not noted in the level of HDL cholesterol, and LDL peak particle diameter before and after treatment.
举例：Our findings indicate that hepatitis C is a progressive disease [指示性说明-现在时]，but only a few died during the average 20.4 years after the initiation of injection drug use [本试验过程中发生的事-过去时］. Antiviral treatment to eradicate the virus and halt the progression of diseases is indicated in this group of patients [作者认为具有普遍意义的结论-现在时].
1．结果提示…：These results suggest that…
举例：These data confirm the presence of at least two major HCV genotypes in Nigeria.
2．结果支持或反对某种观点：These results support the idea that…；These results fail to support the idea that…
举例：These results do not support the idea that treatment to lower cholesterol concentration cause mood disturbance.
3．表示观点的确定或不确定性：There is no evidence that…；It is likely/unlikely that …
举例：There is no evidence that NIDDM produce any change in bone metabolism or mass.
4．具有…意义：Be of great (some/little/no) clinical significance in…to …
举例：The detection of p53 gene is of great clinical significance in tumor diagnosis.
5．前瞻性说明：…remain to be further studied；It is remains to be proved that …
举例：However, the relation of insulin resistance to hypertension remains to be further studied.
6．插入语：This is the first case of pancreas divisum.
举例：This is the first case, to our knowledge, of pancreas divisum.