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Calcified chondroid mesenchymal neoplasms with FN1-receptor tyrosine kinase gene fusions including FGFR2, FGFR1, MERTK, NTRK1, and TEK: a molecular and clinicopathologic analysis.

Liu YJ,Wang W,Yeh J,Wu Y,Mantilla JG,Fletcher CDM,Ricciotti RW,Chen EY
阅读:43 Modern PathologyVolume 34 Issue 7, July 2021:1373-1383 

Abstract

Translocations involving FN1 have been described in a variety of neoplasms that share the presence of a cartilage matrix and may also contain a variable extent of calcification. Fusions of FN1 to FGFR1 or FGFR2 have been reported in nine soft tissue chondromas, mostly demonstrated indirectly by FISH analysis. Delineation of FN1 fusions with various partner genes will facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis and diagnostic classification of these neoplasms. In this study, we present molecular, clinical, and pathologic features of 12 cartilaginous soft tissue neoplasms showing a predilection for the TMJ region and the distal extremities. We analyzed for gene fusions with precise breakpoints using targeted RNA-seq with a 115-gene panel. We detected gene fusions in ten cases, including three novel fusions, FN1-MERTK, FN1-NTRK1, and FN1-TEK, each in one case, recurrent FN1-FGFR2 fusion in five cases, FN1-FGFR1 in one case, and FGFR1-PLAG1 in one case. The breakpoints in the 5' partner gene FN1 ranged from exons 11-48, retaining the domains of a signal peptide, FN1, FN2, and/or FN3, while the 3' partner genes retained the transmembrane domain, tyrosine kinase (TK) domains, and/or Ig domain. The tumors are generally characterized by nodular/lobular growth of polygonal to stellate cells within a chondroid matrix, often accompanied by various patterns of calcification, resembling those described for the chondroblastoma-like variant of soft tissue chondroma. Additional histologic findings include extensive calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition in two cases and features resembling tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT). Overall, while the tumors from our series show significant morphologic overlap with chondroblastoma-like soft tissue chondroma, we describe findings that expand the morphologic spectrum of these neoplasms and therefore refer to them as "calcified chondroid mesenchymal neoplasms." These neoplasms represent a spectrum of chondroid/cartilage matrix-forming tumors harboring FN1-receptor TK fusions that include those classified as soft tissue chondroma as well as chondroid TGCT.

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