A number of fibro-osseous and osteocartilaginous lesions, especially common in the small bones of the hand and feet, pose a diagnostic challenge and have historically been thought to be reactive lesions. However, modern molecular techniques when supplementing clinical, radiographic, and histologic evaluation suggest they may, in fact, be neoplasms.
To review the clinical presentation and histopathologic, molecular, and radiologic features of selective bone lesions, focusing most specifically on subungual exostosis, florid reactive periostitis, and bizarre periosteal osteochondromatous proliferation.
Literature review and personal experience are the sources of this review.
Some lesions previously thought to be reactive are locally aggressive and demonstrate reproducible molecular abnormalities, and thus may be neoplasms. Although most common in the bones of the fingers and toes, these lesions also occur in long and other bones. The clinical presentations, radiologic appearances, and histopathologic features often overlap, making the diagnosis challenging, and these lesions may require molecular evaluation to maximize accurate prognostication.