Microglandular adenosis (MGA)-related lesions, including atypical MGA (AMGA) and carcinoma involving MGA (C-MGA), are characterized by epithelial atypia, negative hormone receptors, and HER2 status, and can mimic invasive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in core needle biopsies (CNB) resulting in selection for treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We identified 12 cases of AMGA and/or C-MGA in post-NAC excision specimens (EXC) and analyzed their morphologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features. All CNBs were initially diagnosed as containing TNBC. Upon re-review, TNBC was confirmed in nine cases. In three CNBs AMGA and/or C-MGA had been interpreted as TNBC. AMGA was initially recognized in only one case but AMGA and/or C-MGA were present in an additional nine CNBs. At EXC, no residual TNBC was present in 5 of 9 EXCs and all 12 cases showed residual AMGA and/or C-MGA. Similar to conventional MGA, AMGA, and C-MGA were positive for S-100, laminin and collagen IV and negative for calponin and p63. Following NAC, these lesions retained their typical staining pattern despite acquiring treatment-related morphologic alterations, most notably of which were areas of single cell growth pattern seen in eight EXCs. This study is the first to report the effects of NAC on AMGA and C-MGA. Our data showed no response of the AMGA and/or C-MGA following NAC in contrast to the high response rate of conventional TNBC. In particular, the infiltrative single cell pattern of post-NAC MGA-related lesions closely mimicked residual TNBC. The persistence of AMGA and C-MGA following NAC supports the notion that these lesions are distinct from conventional TNBC. Our findings also highlight the challenges in recognizing AMGA and C-MGA in CNBs which may lead to unwarranted treatment with NAC in the absence of conventional TNBC.