Malignant mesothelioma can be difficult to distinguish from other malignancies, particularly non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), without immunohistochemistry. However, conventional markers of mesothelial lineage all have variable degrees of cross-reactivity with other neoplasms, including NSCLCs, necessitating the use of multiple mesothelioma and carcinoma markers in every case for accurate diagnosis. A recently described monoclonal HEG homolog 1 (HEG1) antibody was proposed to be a specific marker for mesothelioma. Here we performed a large scale assessment of the SKM9-2 HEG1 antibody using tissue microarrays containing 69 epithelioid mesotheliomas, 32 sarcomatoid mesotheliomas, 167 NSCLCs, and 17 ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas. Strong membrane staining, usually diffuse, for HEG1 was seen in 65/69 (94%) epithelioid mesotheliomas, 0/60 pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas, 0/73 pulmonary adenocarcinomas, and 0/13 pulmonary large cell carcinomas. HEG1 showed staining in 14/32 (44%) sarcomatoid mesotheliomas compared with 0/21 sarcomatoid pulmonary carcinomas. Three of 17 (18%) high-grade serous carcinomas demonstrated membrane staining. Ten B3 thymoma whole sections were negative. On the microarrays, the conventional mesothelial markers calretinin, WT1, D2-40, and CK5/6 had sensitivities for epithelioid mesothelioma of 94%, 90%, 96%, and 91%, respectively. We conclude that HEG1 SKM9-2 antibody offers sensitivity comparable to conventional markers for epithelioid mesotheliomas, but provides considerably better specificity, such that the diagnosis of epithelioid mesothelioma versus NSCLC potentially could be confirmed with a combination of HEG1 and a suitable broad spectrum carcinoma marker such as claudin-4. HEG1 is specific but insensitive for separating sarcomatoid mesotheliomas from sarcomatoid lung carcinomas.