Congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAMs) are abnormalities of the lung arising during development. At our institution the majority of type I infantile CPAMs contain mucinous cell clusters (MCCs). The overlapping histology of MCCs and adult in situ mucinous adenocarcinomas, as well as reports of metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in CPAMs resected later in childhood raise concerns about the malignant potential of these cells. However, after adequate surgical resection, malignant recurrence has not been reported in infants with CPAMs. Despite benign behavior, MCCs often have histologic features that, in an adult, would be consistent with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Therefore, to assess the spectrum of features that may be seen in these presumed precursor lesions, we characterized the histology of 671 MCCs spread across 44 infantile CPAMs and compared them to 10 adult mucinous adenocarcinomas. MCCs in CPAMS were often numerous, widespread, and located outside of the large cysts. Mucinous and nonmucinous epithelium within CPAMs showed complex architecture, making application of adult adenocarcinoma architectural patterns difficult. The MCCs within CPAMs displayed nuclear features similar to adult mucinous adenocarcinomas. The proliferative index in infantile MCCs was higher than in adult mucinous adenocarcinomas but was also higher in uninvolved infantile lung tissue. This work illustrates that histologic features typically associated with adenocarcinoma frequently occur within CPAMs; however, this does not alter their benign behavior. Therefore, extreme caution should be used if adult lung cancer terminology is applied to avoid significant potential psychological and physical harms associated with the label of adenocarcinoma.