Mesonephric adenocarcinomas are rare neoplasms which most commonly arise in the lateral cervix and vagina. Tumors with similar morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular characteristics recently have been described in the uterine corpus and ovary. Herein, the authors sought to characterize the cytomorphologic features of adenocarcinomas exhibiting mesonephric-like differentiation arising in the upper gynecologic tract.
Institutional databases were queried retrospectively for tumors of the upper gynecologic tract described as a "tumor of Wolffian origin" or "with mesonephric features" between 2007 and 2017. All available cytologic material was reviewed. Cytomorphologic characteristics were evaluated by 3 pathologists.
The current study cohort consisted of 8 cases taken from 7 patients. Primary sites included the ovary (3 cases); endometrium (4 cases); and pelvis, not otherwise specified (1 case). All cases demonstrated tight 3-dimensional clusters of overlapping cells. Additional architectural features included tubular (5 of 8 cases; 63%) and papillary (3 of 8 cases; 38%) formations. Cells were small with scant (7 of 8 cases; 88%) to moderate (1 of 8 cases; 12%) cytoplasm. Three of the 8 cases (38%) demonstrated extracellular hyaline globules. Nuclei were uniform in size (6 of 8 cases; 75%) or showed mild anisonucleosis (2 of 8 cases; 25%). Nuclear grooves and indentations were observed in all cases. Mitoses (5 of 8 cases; 63%) and apoptotic bodies (4 of 8 cases; 50%), when present, were rare. No necrosis was noted.
Adenocarcinomas exhibiting mesonephric-like differentiation show a monotonous population of small cells with scant to moderate cytoplasm and abundant nuclear grooves arranged in tight, overlapping, 3-dimensional clusters. Occasionally, papillary or tubular architecture, as well as extracellular hyaline globules, may be seen. These features should prompt further testing (eg, immunohistochemistry) to confirm the diagnosis and to exclude potential mimics.