Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm of intermediate biologic potential and uncertain differentiation, most often arising in the superficial extremities of children and young adults. While it has characteristic histologic features of nodular distributions of ovoid and spindle cells with blood-filled cystic cavities and a surrounding dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, there is a significant morphologic spectrum, which coupled with its rarity and lack of specific immunoprofile can make diagnosis challenging. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is associated with 3 characteristic gene fusions, EWSR1-CREB1 and EWSR1-ATF1, which are also described in other neoplasms, and rarely FUS-ATF1. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is now recognized at an increasing number of sites and is known to display a variety of unusual histologic features.
To review the current status of AFH, discussing putative etiology, histopathology with variant morphology and differential diagnosis, and current genetics, including overlap with other tumors harboring EWSR1-CREB1 and EWSR1-ATF1 fusions.
Review of published literature, including case series, case reports, and review articles, in online medical databases.
The occurrence of AFH at several unusual anatomic sites and its spectrum of morphologic patterns can result in significant diagnostic difficulty, and correct diagnosis is particularly important because of its small risk of metastasis and death. This highlights the importance of diagnostic recognition, ancillary molecular genetic confirmation, and close clinical follow-up of patients with AFH. Further insight into the genetic and epigenetic changes arising secondary to the characteristic gene fusions of AFH will be integral to understanding its tumorigenic mechanisms.
本文评述当前对AFH的认识、讨论其病因假说、不同形态学表现的组织病理学及鉴别诊断和当前对遗传学的认识，包括与其他肿瘤重叠的EWSR1-CREB1 和 EWSR1-ATF1基因融合。