A recurrent intrachromosomal rearrangement on chromosome 12q in solitary fibrous tumor leads to the formation of a NAB2-STAT6 fusion oncogene. As a result, nuclear expression of the cytoplasmic transcription factor STAT6 is found in solitary fibrous tumor and serves as a useful diagnostic marker. STAT6 is located in 12q13, a region containing well-characterized oncogenes that are commonly amplified in dedifferentiated liposarcoma; we have previously reported that STAT6 is expressed in a subset of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of STAT6 expression in dedifferentiated liposarcoma and the underlying genetic mechanism. STAT6 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a well-characterized series of 35 previously unpublished cases of dedifferentiated liposarcoma, all with nuclear MDM2 and/or CDK4 expression by immunohistochemistry and/or cytogenetic features of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. FISH for STAT6 was performed in all cases with STAT6 expression, and a subset of control cases without STAT6 expression. In total 4/35 cases (11%) showed STAT6 expression (three with multifocal staining of moderate to strong intensity and one with weak focal staining). FISH demonstrated amplification of STAT6 in all cases positive for STAT6 by immunohistochemistry; in contrast, FISH performed on four STAT6-negative dedifferentiated liposarcomas demonstrated no STAT6 amplification (P=0.0286). Of the four STAT6 amplified cases, three patients were male and one was female, ranging in age from 51 to 76 years. Tumors were located in the mediastinum (n=2), paratesticular soft tissue (n=1), and perirenal soft tissue (n=1). Three patients received pre-operative chemotherapy +/- radiation therapy. In conclusion, STAT6 is amplified in a subset of dedifferentiated liposarcoma, resulting in STAT6 protein expression that can be detected by immunohistochemistry and may be a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of dedifferentiated liposarcoma and solitary fibrous tumor. These findings suggest a role for STAT6-mediated transcriptional activity in some cases of dedifferentiated liposarcoma and highlight the genomic complexity and heterogeneity of dedifferentiated liposarcoma.