We report the morphologic description of the bile acid sequestrants (BAS) colesevelam and colestipol, as well as the largest series of cholestyramine. Histologically similar medication resins from 4 institutions were prospectively collected over 1 year (26 specimens, 15 patients). Comorbidities included hyperlipidemia (4/15), hypertension (4/15), inflammatory bowel disease (4/15), coronary artery disease (3/15), diarrhea (7/15), hypothyroidism (2/15), and ischemic bowel (1/15). Sites of involvement included the esophagus (1/26), stomach (1/26), small intestine (1/26), ileocecal valve (1/26), and colorectum (22/26). Associated histologic diagnoses included normal (8/26), chronic mucosal injury (11/26), acute inflammation (9/26), erosion/ulceration (6/26), and cytomegalovirus (2/26). The BAS resins were histologically indistinguishable from each other; they were all eosinophilic on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and lacked internal "fish-scales." To validate these observations, respective medications were submitted for histologic processing; the processed medications were identical to those in the patient specimens. Rare, irregular "fracture" lines presented diagnostic pitfalls by mimicking the true "fish-scales" of Kayexalate and sevelamer. Clues to the correct identification of BAS include recognition that the "fracture" lines were subtle, irregular, and restricted to large fragments or thick sections, likely representing a processing artifact. Moreover, Kayexalate is violet on H&E and black on acid fast bacillus, and sevelamer characteristically displays a 2-tone color on H&E and is magenta on acid fast bacillus. An association with inflammatory injury was seen (15/26). We believe that the BAS are innocent bystanders in complicated patients, although we cannot exclude their ability to cause mucosal injury in specific settings.